YouTube

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YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. The service was created by three former PayPal employees – Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim – in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries.

The site allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to favorites, report, comment on videos and subscribe to other users. It uses WebM, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and Adobe Flash Video technology to display a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos, short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers and other content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube has been uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Vevo, and Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed potentially offensive are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.

YouTube earns advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Red, a subscription service offering ad-free access to the website and access to exclusive content made in partnership with existing users. Template:As of, there are more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, and one billion hours of content is watched on YouTube every day. Template:As of, the website is ranked as the second most popular site in the world by Alexa Internet, a web traffic analysis company.<ref name="alexa"/>

Company history

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File:YouTube screenshot 2005.png
The YouTube homepage as it appeared from April to May 2005

YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible".<ref name="YouTube gurus">Template:Cite web</ref>

Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, and later from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not easily find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not.<ref name="YouTube gurus"/><ref>Earliest surviving version of the YouTube website Wayback Machine, April 28, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2013.</ref>

File:Youtube logo.jpg
The YouTube logo from launch until 2011, featuring its former slogan Broadcast Yourself

YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup, primarily from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, and the website was developed over the subsequent months.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, and can still be viewed on the site.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005. The first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched officially on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The site grew rapidly, and in July 2006 the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute,<ref name="48-60">Template:Cite web</ref> which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012,<ref name="48-60"/> 100 hours every minute in May 2013,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> 300 hours every minute in November 2014,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and 400 hours every minute in February 2017.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The site has 800 million unique users a month.<ref name="seabrook20120116">Template:Cite news</ref> It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> According to third-party web analytics providers, Alexa and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, Template:As of; SimilarWeb also lists YouTube as the top TV and video website globally, attracting more than 15 billion visitors per month.<ref name=alexa /><ref name="similar">Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

The choice of the name www.youtube.com led to problems for a similarly named website, www.utube.com. The site's owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to www.utubeonline.com.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

File:901 Cherry Avenue.jpg
YouTube's headquarters in San Bruno, California

In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League. According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> On March 31, 2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: "We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter."<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In May 2010, YouTube videos were watched more than two billion times per day.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> This increased to three billion in May 2011,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and four billion in January 2012.<ref name="48-60"/><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In February 2017, one billion hours of YouTube was watched every day.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In October 2010, Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as chief executive officer of YouTube to take an advisory role, and that Salar Kamangar would take over as head of the company.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In April 2011, James Zern, a YouTube software engineer, revealed that 30% of videos accounted for 99% of views on the site.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In November 2011, the Google+ social networking site was integrated directly with YouTube and the Chrome web browser, allowing YouTube videos to be viewed from within the Google+ interface.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In December 2011, YouTube launched a new version of the site interface, with the video channels displayed in a central column on the home page, similar to the news feeds of social networking sites.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> At the same time, a new version of the YouTube logo was introduced with a darker shade of red, the first change in design since October 2006.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In May 2013, YouTube launched a pilot program to begin offering some content providers the ability to charge $0.99 per month or more for certain channels, but the vast majority of its videos would remain free to view.<ref name="subscription">Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

In February 2015, YouTube released a secondary mobile app known as YouTube Kids. The app is designed to provide an experience optimized for children, and features a simplified user interface, curated selections of channels featuring age-approriate content (including existing channels and entertainment brands), and parental control features.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Later on August 26, 2015, YouTube launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming-oriented sub-site and app that is intended to compete with the Amazon.com-owned Twitch.tv.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> 2015 also saw the announcement of a premium YouTube service titled YouTube Red, which provides users with both ad-free content as well as the ability to download videos among other features.<ref name=Youtubered>Template:Cite web</ref> On August 10, 2015, Google announced that it was creating a new company, Alphabet, to act as the holding company for Google, with the change in financial reporting to begin in the fourth quarter of 2015. YouTube remains as a subsidiary of Google.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In January 2016, YouTube expanded its headquarters in San Bruno by purchasing an office park for $215 million. The complex has 554,000 square feet of space and can house up to 2,800 employees.<ref name="office_park">Template:Cite news</ref>

Features

Video technology

Playback

Previously, viewing YouTube videos on a personal computer required the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to be installed in the browser.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In January 2010, YouTube launched an experimental version of the site that used the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5 standard.<ref name="youtubehtml5">Template:Cite news</ref> This allowed videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in to be installed.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The YouTube site had a page that allowed supported browsers to opt into the HTML5 trial. Only browsers that supported HTML5 Video using the H.264 or WebM formats could play the videos, and not all videos on the site were available.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> On January 27, 2015, YouTube announced that HTML5 will be the default playback method on supported browsers. Supported browsers include Chrome, Safari 8, and Internet Explorer 11.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube experimented with Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution optimizing the bitrate and quality for the available network.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube uses Adobe Dynamic Streaming for Flash.<ref>Template:Youtube</ref>

Uploading

All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users who have a good track record of complying with the site's Community Guidelines may be offered the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, which requires verifying the account, normally through a mobile phone.<ref>Video length for uploading YouTube Help. Retrieved April 17, 2012.</ref> When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload long videos, but a ten-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="longer">Template:Cite web</ref> The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> If an up-to-date browser version is used, videos greater than 20 GB can be uploaded.<ref>"Upload videos longer than 15 minutes". YouTube. Retrieved April 6, 2014.</ref> Videos captions are made using speech recognition technology when uploaded. Such captioning is usually not perfectly accurate, so YouTube provides several options for manually entering the captions for greater accuracy.<ref name="captioning">Template:Cite web</ref>

YouTube accepts videos that are uploaded in most container formats, including AVI, MP4, MPEG-PS, QuickTime File Format and FLV. It supports WebM files and also 3GP, allowing videos to be uploaded from mobile phones.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Videos with progressive scanning or interlaced scanning can be uploaded, but for the best video quality, YouTube suggests interlaced videos be deinterlaced before uploading. All the video formats on YouTube use progressive scanning.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube's statistics shows that interlaced videos are still being uploaded to YouTube, and there is no sign of that actually dwindling. YouTube attributes this to uploading of made-for-TV content.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Quality and formats

YouTube originally offered videos at only one quality level, displayed at a resolution of 320×240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec (a variant of H.263),<ref name="incomplete-h263">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="flash-video">Template:Cite web</ref> with mono MP3 audio.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In June 2007, YouTube added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In March 2008, a high-quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to 480×360 pixels.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In November 2008, 720p HD support was added. At the time of the 720p launch, the YouTube player was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> With this new feature, YouTube began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November 2009, 1080p HD support was added. In July 2010, YouTube announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolution of up to 4096×3072 pixels.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In June 2015, support for 8K resolution was added, with the videos playing at 7680×4320 pixels.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In November 2016, support for HDR video was added which can be encoded with Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) or Perceptual Quantizer (PQ).<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> HDR video can be encoded with the Rec. 2020 color space.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In June 2014, YouTube introduced videos playing at 60 frames per second, in order to reproduce video games with a frame rate comparable to high-end graphics cards.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> The videos play back at a resolution of 720p or higher.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube videos are available in a range of quality levels. The former names of standard quality (SQ), high quality (HQ), and high definition (HD) have been replaced by numerical values representing the vertical resolution of the video. The default video stream is encoded in the VP9 format with stereo Opus audio; if VP9/WebM is not supported in the browser/device or the browser's user agent reports Windows XP, then H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video with stereo AAC audio is used instead.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Template:Hidden begin Non-DASH

itag valueTemplate:Ref Default container Video resolution Video encoding Video profile Video bitrate (Mbit/s) Template:Ref Audio encoding Audio bitrate (kbit/s) Template:Ref
17 3GP 144p MPEG-4 Visual Simple 0.05 AAC 24
36 240p 0.175 32
18 MP4 360p H.264 Baseline 0.5 96
22 720p High 2-3 192
43 WebM 360p VP8 Template:N/a 0.5-0.75 Vorbis 128

DASH (video only)

itag valueTemplate:Ref Default container Video resolution Video encoding Video profile Video bitrate (Mbit/s) Template:Ref
160 MP4 144p 15 fps H.264 Main 0.1
133 240p 0.2–0.3
134 360p 0.3–0.4
135 480p 0.5–1
136 720p 1–1.5
298 720p HFR 3–3.5
137 1080p High 2.5–3
299 1080p HFR 5.5
264 1440p 4–4.5
266 2160p 12.5–16
138 4320p 13.5–25
278 WebM 144p 15 fps VP9 Profile 0 0.08
242 240p 0.1–0.2
243 360p 0.25
244 480p 0.5
247 720p 0.7–0.8
248 1080p 1.5
271 1440p 9
313 2160p 13–15
272 4320p 20–25
302 720p HFR 2.5
303 1080p HFR 5
308 1440p HFR 10
315 2160p HFR 20–25
330 144p HDR, HFR Profile 2 0.08
331 240p HDR, HFR 0.1–0.15
332 360p HDR, HFR 0.25
333 480p HDR, HFR 0.5
334 720p HDR, HFR 1
335 1080p HDR, HFR 1.5–2
336 1440p HDR, HFR 5–7
337 2160p HDR, HFR 12–14

DASH (audio only)

itag valueTemplate:Ref Default container Audio encoding Audio bitrate (kbit/s) Template:Ref
140 M4A AAC 128
171 WebM Vorbis
249 Opus 48
250 64
251 160

Live streaming

itag valueTemplate:Ref Default container Video resolution Video encoding Video profile Video bitrate (Mbit/s) Template:Ref Audio encoding Audio bitrate (kbit/s) Template:Ref
91 TS 144p H.264 Main 0.1 AAC 48
92 240p 0.15–0.3
93 360p 0.5–1 128
94 480p 0.8–1.25
95 720p 1.5–3 256
96 1080p High 2.5–6

Template:Note[1] itag is an undocumented parameter used internally by YouTube to differentiate between quality profiles. Until December 2010, there was also a URL parameter known as fmt that allowed a user to force a profile using itag codes.

Template:Note[2] Approximate values based on statistical data; actual bitrate can be higher or lower due to variable encoding rate.

<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>Template:SPS<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>Template:SPS<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Template:Hidden end

3D videos

In a video posted on July 21, 2009,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube software engineer Peter Bradshaw announced that YouTube users can now upload 3D videos. The videos can be viewed in several different ways, including the common anaglyph (cyan/red lens) method which utilizes glasses worn by the viewer to achieve the 3D effect.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> The YouTube Flash player can display stereoscopic content interleaved in rows, columns or a checkerboard pattern, side-by-side or anaglyph using a red/cyan, green/magenta or blue/yellow combination. In May 2011, an HTML5 version of the YouTube player began supporting side-by-side 3D footage that is compatible with Nvidia 3D Vision.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

360° videos

In January 2015, Google announced that 360° videos would be natively supported on YouTube. On March 13, 2015, YouTube enabled 360° videos which can be viewed from Google Cardboard, a virtual reality system. YouTube 360 can also be viewed from all other virtual reality headsets.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

User features

Community

On September 13, 2016, YouTube launched a public beta of Community, a social media-based feature that allows users to post text, images (including GIFs), live videos and others in a separate "Community" tab on their channel.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> At the time of release, Vlogbrothers, Lilly Singh, The Game Theorists, Karmin, The Key of Awesome, The Kloons, Peter Hollens, Rosianna Halse Rojas, Sam Tsui, Threadbanger and Vsauce3 received the feature.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Content accessibility

YouTube offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Each YouTube video is accompanied by a piece of HTML that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> This functionality is often used to embed YouTube videos in social networking pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by or related to another user's video are able to make a "video response". On August 27, 2013, YouTube announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Embedding, rating, commenting and response posting can be disabled by the video owner.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

YouTube does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> A small number of videos, such as the weekly addresses by President Barack Obama, can be downloaded as MP4 files.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube videos.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In February 2009, YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In June 2012, Google sent cease and desist letters threatening legal action against several websites offering online download and conversion of YouTube videos.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In response, Zamzar removed the ability to download YouTube videos from its site.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The default settings when uploading a video to YouTube will retain a copyright on the video for the uploader, but since July 2012, it has been possible to select a Creative Commons license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material if it is free of copyright.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Platforms

Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, either within an application or through an optimized website. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, using RTSP streaming for the video.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Not all of YouTube's videos are available on the mobile version of the site.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV, iPod Touch and the iPhone.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In July 2010, the mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5, avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In September 2012, YouTube launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating system.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> According to GlobalWebIndex, YouTube was used by 35% of smartphone users between April and June 2013, making it the third most used app.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

A TiVo service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube videos.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In January 2009, YouTube launched "YouTube for TV", a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In June 2009, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube is also available as an app on Xbox Live.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> On November 15, 2012, Google launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube videos from the Wii channel.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> An app is also available for Wii U and Nintendo 3DS, and videos can be viewed on the Wii U Internet Browser using HTML5.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Google made YouTube available on the Roku player on December 17, 2013,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and, in October 2014, the Sony PlayStation 4.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Localization

On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt was in Paris to launch the new localization system.<ref name="local" /> The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 89 countries, one territory (Hong Kong) and a worldwide version.<ref>See YouTube localisation list on the bottom of YouTube website.</ref>

Countries with YouTube Localization
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Country Language(s) Launch date
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Template:Flag Swedish Template:Dts<ref>Launch video unavailable when YouTube opens up in Sweden October 23, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2012.</ref>
Template:Flag Afrikaans, Zulu, and English Template:Dts<ref name="local" />
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Template:Flag English, Malay, Chinese, and Tamil Template:Dts<ref name="singapore">Template:Cite news</ref>
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Template:Flag Spanish Template:Dts<ref>YouTube launches localized website for Colombia December 1, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011.</ref>
Template:Flag English Template:Dts<ref>Google Launches YouTube Uganda December 2, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.</ref>
Template:Flag English Template:Dts<ref>Google to Launch YouTube Nigeria Today December 7, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.</ref>
Template:Flag Spanish Template:Dts<ref>Google launches YouTube Chile March 19, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. Template:Webarchive</ref>
Template:Flag Hungarian Template:Dts<ref>Google Launches Hungarian YouTube March 12, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. Template:Webarchive</ref>
Template:Flag Malay, and English Template:Dts<ref>YouTube Launches Local Domain For Malaysia March 22, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.</ref>
Template:Flag Spanish Template:Dts<ref>YouTube Peru Launched, Expansion continues March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.</ref>
Template:Flag Arabic, and English Template:Dts<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
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Template:Flag Indonesian, and English Template:Dts<ref>"YouTube Launches Indonesian Version", June 15, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.</ref>
Template:Flag English Template:Dts<ref>"Google launches YouTube in Ghana", June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.</ref>
Template:Flag French, and English Template:Dts<ref>"YouTube launches local portal in Senegal", Jubr>

Template:Note[3] itag 120 is for live streaming and has metadata referring to "Elemental Technologies Live".July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.</ref>

Template:Flag Turkish Template:Dts<ref>"YouTube's Turkish version goes into service", October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012.</ref>
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The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen on the basis of the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The interface of the YouTube website is available in 76 language versions, including Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Bengali, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do not have local channel versions.<ref name="languages">Template:Cite web</ref> Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In October 2012, a local version of YouTube was launched in Turkey, with the domain youtube.com.tr. The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September 2009.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

YouTube Red

Template:Main article YouTube Red is YouTube's premium subscription service. It offers advertising-free streaming, access to exclusive content, background and offline video playback on mobile devices, and access to the Google Play Music "All Access" service.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube Red was originally announced on November 12, 2014, as "Music Key", a subscription music streaming service, and was intended to integrate with and replace the existing Google Play Music "All Access" service.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="Variety Music Key">Template:Cite web</ref> On October 28, 2015, the service was re-launched as YouTube Red, offering ad-free streaming of all videos, as well as access to exclusive original content.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Template:As of, the service has 1.5 million subscribers, with a further million on a free-trial basis.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

YouTube TV

On February 28, 2017, in a press announcement held at YouTube Space Los Angeles, YouTube announced the launch of YouTube TV, an over-the-top MVPD-style subscription service that would be available for $35 per month. Initially launching in five major U.S. markets (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia and San Francisco) on April 5, 2017,<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> the service offers live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox Broadcasting Company and NBC), as well as approximately 40 cable channels owned by the corporate parents of those networks, The Walt Disney Company, CBS Corporation, 21st Century Fox, and NBCUniversal (including among others Bravo, USA Network, Syfy, Disney Channel, E!, Fox Sports 1, Freeform, FX and ESPN). Subscribers can also receive Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus as optional add-ons for an extra fee, and can access YouTube Red original content (YouTube TV does not include a YouTube Red subscription).<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Social impact

Template:Main article Both private individuals<ref name=Reuters20070225 /> and large production companies<ref name="Rise and fall">Template:Cite web</ref> have used YouTube to grow audiences. Independent content creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic.<ref name=Reuters20070225>Template:Cite news</ref> Concurrently, old media celebrities moved into the website at the invitation of a YouTube management that witnessed early content creators accruing substantial followings, and perceived audience sizes potentially larger than that attainable by television.<ref name="Rise and fall"/> YouTube channels launched by The Ellen DeGeneres Show and The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon became two of the most subscribed. While YouTube's revenue-sharing "Partner Program" made it possible to earn a substantial living as a video producer—its top five hundred partners each earning more than $100,000 annually<ref name="NewYorker20120116">Template:Cite news</ref> and its ten highest-earning channels grossing from $2.5 million to $12 million (the most successful of whom were YouTubers PewDiePie, Smosh, and the Fine Brothers)<ref name=Forbes20151113>Template:Cite webTemplate:Cite web</ref>—in 2012 CMU business editor characterized YouTube as "a free-to-use... promotional platform for the music labels".<ref name=BBC20121221>Template:Cite news</ref> In 2013 Forbes' Katheryn Thayer asserted that digital-era artists' work must not only be of high quality, but must elicit reactions on the YouTube platform and social media.<ref name=Forbes20131029>Template:Cite news</ref> Videos of the 2.5% of artists categorized as "mega", "mainstream" and "mid-sized" received 90.3% of the relevant views on YouTube and Vevo in that year,<ref name=NextBigSound2013YearInRewind>Template:Cite web "Developing" artists 6.9%; "Undiscovered" artists 2.8%.</ref> as the Vevo channels of Justin Bieber and Rihanna became two of the top five most subscribed, and music videos outperformed other content in attracting the most views and the most likes, particularly in the cases of "Gangnam Style" in 2012 and "See You Again" in 2015. By early 2013 Billboard had announced that it was factoring YouTube streaming data into calculation of the Billboard Hot 100 and related genre charts.<ref name=Billboard20130220>Template:Cite web</ref>

File:Jordan Hoffner at the 68th Annual Peabody Awards for YouTube.jpg
Jordan Hoffner at the 68th Annual Peabody Awards accepting for YouTube

Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been "fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution", TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube contributors and asserted that "what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication".<ref name=TED201007Anderson>Template:Cite web (click on "Show transcript" tab) • Corresponding YouTube video from official TED channel was titled "How YouTube is driving innovation."</ref> Anderson asserted that it's not far-fetched to say that online video will dramatically accelerate scientific advance, and that video contributors may be about to launch "the biggest learning cycle in human history."<ref name="TED201007Anderson" /> In education, for example, the Khan Academy grew from YouTube video tutoring sessions for founder Salman Khan's cousin into what Forbes'  Michael Noer called "the largest school in the world", with technology poised to disrupt how people learn.<ref name=Forbes20121102>Template:Cite news</ref> YouTube was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award,<ref>YouTube.com (award profile), "Winner 2008", peabodyawards.com, May 2009. (Template:Webarchive from the original on January 14, 2016).</ref> the website being described as a Speakers' Corner that "both embodies and promotes democracy."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The Washington Post reported that a disproportionate share of YouTube's most subscribed channels feature minorities, contrasting with mainstream television in which the stars are largely white.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> A Pew Research Center study reported the development of "visual journalism", in which citizen eyewitnesses and established news organizations share in content creation.<ref name=PEW20120716>Template:Cite web</ref> The study also concluded that YouTube was becoming an important platform by which people acquire news.<ref name=PewYTnews20120716>Template:Cite web</ref>

YouTube has enabled people to more directly engage with government, such as in the CNN/YouTube presidential debates (2007) in which ordinary people submitted questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube video, with a techPresident co-founder saying that Internet video was changing the political landscape.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Describing the Arab Spring (2010- ), sociologist Philip N. Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world."<ref name=PacificStd20110223>Template:Cite web</ref> In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the "Kony 2012" video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to (Kony's) demise than all other action combined."<ref name=Politico20120322>Template:Cite web</ref>

File:ObamaYouTubers307.png
Leading YouTube content creators met at the White House with U.S. President Obama to discuss how government could better connect with the "YouTube generation".<ref name=Tubefilter20140302 /><ref name=WhiteHouse20140306>Template:Cite web</ref>

Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House's official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in 2012<ref name=PewWhiteHouse20120716>Template:Cite web</ref> and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson's YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)-compliant health insurance.<ref name=LATimes20131212>Template:Cite news</ref> In February 2014, U.S. President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare<ref name=Buzzfeed20140302>Template:Cite news</ref> but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the "YouTube Generation".<ref name=Tubefilter20140302>Template:Cite web</ref> Whereas YouTube's inherent ability to allow presidents to directly connect with average citizens was noted, the YouTube content creators' new media savvy was perceived necessary to better cope with the website's distracting content and fickle audience.<ref name=Tubefilter20140302 />

Some YouTube videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims (2012) which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally.<ref name=CNN20120914>Template:Cite news</ref> TED curator Chris Anderson described a phenomenon by which geographically distributed individuals in a certain field share their independently developed skills in YouTube videos, thus challenging others to improve their own skills, and spurring invention and evolution in that field.<ref name=TED201007Anderson /> Journalist Virginia Heffernan stated in The New York Times that such videos have "surprising implications" for the dissemination of culture and even the future of classical music.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers<ref name=TED201002LXD>Template:Cite web</ref> and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra<ref name=Reuters20090414 /> selected their membership based on individual video performances.<ref name=TED201007Anderson /><ref name=Reuters20090414>Template:Cite news</ref> Further, the cybercollaboration charity video "We Are the World 25 for Haiti (YouTube edition)" was formed by mixing performances of 57 globally distributed singers into a single musical work,<ref name="CNNtranscripts201003">Template:Cite news Also CNN Saturday Morning News and CNN Sunday Morning (archives).</ref> with The Tokyo Times noting the "We Pray for You" YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an example of a trend to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes.<ref name=TokyoTimes20110511>Template:Cite web</ref> The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project expanded from a single YouTube video directed to discouraged or suicidal LGBT teens,<ref name=SFChronicle20101008>Template:Cite news</ref> that within two months drew video responses from hundreds including U.S. President Barack Obama, Vice President Biden, White House staff, and several cabinet secretaries.<ref name=WhiteHouseItGetsBetter>Template:Cite web</ref> Similarly, in response to fifteen-year-old Amanda Todd's video "My story: Struggling, bullying, suicide, self-harm", legislative action was undertaken almost immediately after her suicide to study the prevalence of bullying and form a national anti-bullying strategy.<ref name=CanadaTV20121014>Template:Cite web</ref>

Revenue

Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing.<ref name=Moneyclip>Template:Cite news</ref> In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.<ref name="Forbes08">Template:Cite news</ref> In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical U.S. citizen watching television.<ref name="seabrook20120116" /> In 2012, YouTube's revenue from its ads program was estimated at 3.7 billion.<ref name="Wall Street Journal 5.6 Billion Annual revenue" /> In 2013 it nearly doubled and estimated to hit 5.6 billion dollars according to eMarketer,<ref name="Wall Street Journal 5.6 Billion Annual revenue">Template:Cite news</ref><ref name="Youtube earns 5.6 Billion Yahoo">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="Forbes YouTube 5.6 billion 2013">Template:Cite web</ref> others estimated 4.7 billion,<ref name="Wall Street Journal 5.6 Billion Annual revenue" /> The vast majority of videos on YouTube are free to view and supported by advertising.<ref name="subscription" /> In May 2013, YouTube introduced a trial scheme of 53 subscription channels with prices ranging from $0.99 to $6.99 a month.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> The move was seen as an attempt to compete with other providers of online subscription services such as Netflix and Hulu.<ref name="subscription" />

YouTube entered into a marketing and advertising partnership with NBC in June 2006.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In March 2007, it struck a deal with BBC for three channels with BBC content, one for news and two for entertainment.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for US viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In November 2009, YouTube launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In January 2010, YouTube introduced an online film rentals service,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> which is available only to users in the US, Canada and the UK as of 2010.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> The service offers over 6,000 films.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Partnership with video creators

In May 2007, YouTube launched its Partner Program, a system based on AdSense which allows the uploader of the video to share the revenue produced by advertising on the site.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube typically takes 45 percent of the advertising revenue from videos in the Partner Program, with 55 percent going to the uploader.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program.<ref>Statistics – YouTube Retrieved May 20, 2013.</ref> According to TubeMogul, in 2013 a pre-roll advertisement on YouTube (one that is shown before the video starts) cost advertisers on average $7.60 per 1000 views. Usually no more than half of eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers.<ref name="nyt">Template:Cite web</ref> Assuming pre-roll advertisements on half of videos, a YouTube partner would earn 0.5 X $7.60 X 55% = $2.09 per 1000 views in 2013.<ref name="nyt" />

Revenue to copyright holders

Much of YouTube's revenue goes to the copyright holders of the videos.<ref name="Forbes YouTube 5.6 billion 2013" /> In 2010, it was reported that nearly a third of the videos with advertisements were uploaded without permission of the copyright holders. YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In May 2013, Nintendo began enforcing its copyright ownership and claiming the advertising revenue from video creators who posted screenshots of its games.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In February 2015, Nintendo agreed to share the revenue with the video creators.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Community policy

YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior.<ref name="guidelines" /> Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism from news sources for content in violation of these guidelines.

Copyrighted material

At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted.<ref>Why do I have a sanction on my account? YouTube. Retrieved February 5, 2012.</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Viacom, demanding $1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube that had been viewed "an astounding 1.5 billion times". YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works".<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights".<ref name=privacy_bbc>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In June 2010, Viacom's lawsuit against Google was rejected in a summary judgment, with U.S. federal Judge Louis L. Stanton stating that Google was protected by provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> On April 5, 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reinstated the case, allowing Viacom's lawsuit against Google to be heard in court again.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> On March 18, 2014, the lawsuit was settled after seven years with an undisclosed agreement.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her 13-month-old son dancing to Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy", and posted the 29-second video on YouTube.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In the case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> He asserted seven causes of action, and four were ruled in Smith's favor.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. The performance rights organization GEMA argued that YouTube had not done enough to prevent the uploading of German copyrighted music. YouTube responded by stating:

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On November 1, 2016, the dispute with GEMA was resolved, with Google content ID being used to allow advertisements to be added to videos with content protected by GEMA.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice. When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube's owner Google announced in November 2015 that they would help cover the legal cost in select cases where they believe "fair use" laws apply.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Content ID

Template:See also In June 2007, YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> The system, which became known as Content ID,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> creates an ID File for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found.<ref name="youtube">More about Content ID YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011.</ref> When this occurs, the content owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the video. YouTube describes Content ID as "very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File".<ref name="youtube" /> Content ID accounts for over a third of the monetized views on YouTube.<ref>Press Statistics YouTube. Retrieved March 13, 2012.</ref>

An independent test in 2009 uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube, and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The use of Content ID to remove material automatically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair use.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> If a YouTube user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision.<ref>Content ID disputes YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011.</ref> YouTube has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site's rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited length.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Controversial content

Template:See also YouTube has also faced criticism over the offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube's "Community Guidelines".<ref name="guidelines">Template:Cite web</ref> YouTube relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's guidelines.<ref name="guidelines" />

Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In July 2008, the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content". YouTube responded by stating:

Template:Quote

In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to remove from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> YouTube pulled some of the videos in November 2010, stating they violated the site's guidelines.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In December 2010, YouTube added the ability to flag videos for containing terrorism content.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

YouTube's policies on "advertiser-friendly content" restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language, sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown", unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain".<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In September 2016, after introducing an enhanced notification system to inform users of these violations, YouTube's policies were criticized by prominent users, including Phillip DeFranco and Vlogbrothers. DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was "censorship by a different name". A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had "improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In March 2017, the government of the United Kingdom pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremism content. The government demanded assurances that its advertising would "be delivered in a safe and appropriate way". The Guardian newspaper, as well as other major British and U.S. brands, similarly suspended their advertising on YouTube in response to their advertising appearing near offensive content. Google stated that it had "begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear".<ref name="bloomberg-adsextremist">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="bbc-youtubeadsuk">Template:Cite web</ref> In early-April 2017, the YouTube channel h3h3Productions presented evidence claiming that a Wall Street Journal article had fabricated screenshots showing major brand advertising on an offensive video containing Johnny Rebel music overlaid on a Chief Keef music video, citing that the video itself had not earned any ad revenue for the uploader. The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had actually been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video.<ref name="tdb-youtubestar">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="mashable-h3h3youtube">Template:Cite web</ref>

On April 6, 2017, YouTube announced that in order to "ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules", it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10,000 lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program.<ref name="verge-10kviewsrule">Template:Cite web</ref>

User comments

Template:See also

Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In 2006, Time praised Web 2.0 for enabling "community and collaboration on a scale never seen before", and added that YouTube "harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred".<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The Guardian in 2009 described users' comments on YouTube as:

Template:Cquote

In September 2008, The Daily Telegraph commented that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts".<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The Huffington Post noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube that appear "offensive, stupid and crass" to the "vast majority" of the people is hardly difficult.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

On November 6, 2013, Google implemented a comment system oriented on Google+ that required all YouTube users to use a Google+ account in order to comment on videos. The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone.<ref>"YouTube aims to tame the trolls with changes to its comments section", Stuart Dredge, The Guardian, November 7, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.</ref> The new system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with abuse.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In response, YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim posted the question "why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video?" on his YouTube channel to express his negative opinion of the change.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> The official YouTube announcement<ref>Template:YouTube, November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.</ref> received 20,097 "thumbs down" votes and generated more than 32,000 comments in two days.<ref>"YouTube Founder Blasts New YouTube Comments: Jawed Karim Outraged At Google Plus Requirement", Ryan W. Neal, International Business Times, November 8, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.</ref> Writing in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that "Google+ is nowhere near as popular a social media network as Facebook, but it's essentially being forced upon millions of YouTube users who don't want to lose their ability to comment on videos" and "Discussion forums across the Internet are already bursting with outcry against the new comment system". In the same article Melvin goes on to say:<ref>Template:Cite web Template:Subscription Alternate link Template:Webarchive.</ref> Template:Cquote

On July 27, 2015, Google announced in a blog post that it would be removing the requirement to sign up to a Google+ account to post comments to YouTube.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

On November 3, 2016, YouTube announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

View counts

In December 2012, two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by Billboard, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube.<ref name="daily_dot">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="guardian_migrate">Template:Cite web</ref> On August 5, 2015, YouTube removed the feature which caused a video's view count to freeze at "301" (later "301+") until the actual count was verified to prevent view count fraud.<ref>Template:Cite AV media</ref> YouTube view counts now update in real time.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Censorship and filtering

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As of September 2012, countries with standing national bans on YouTube include China, Iran, and Turkmenistan.

YouTube is blocked for a variety of reasons, including:<ref name=ONIYouTubeCensored>"YouTube Censored: A Recent History", OpenNet Initiative. Retrieved September 23, 2012.</ref>

  • Limiting public exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest;
  • Preventing criticism of a ruler, government, government officials, religion, or religious leaders;
  • Violations of national laws, including:
    • Copyright and intellectual property protection laws;
    • Violations of hate speech, ethics, or morality-based laws; and
    • National security legislation.
  • Preventing access to videos judged to be inappropriate for youth;
  • Reducing distractions at work or school; and
  • Reducing the amount of network bandwidth used.

In some countries, YouTube is completely blocked, either through a long term standing ban or for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries. In other countries access to the website as a whole remains open, but access to specific videos is blocked. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service.<ref name=ONIYouTubeCensored />

Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to bandwidth limitations and the site's potential for distraction.<ref name=ONIYouTubeCensored />

Several countries have blocked access to YouTube:

Music Key licensing

In May 2014, before YouTube's subscription-based Music Key service was launched, the independent music trade organization Worldwide Independent Network alleged that YouTube was using non-negotiable contracts with independent labels that were "undervalued" in comparison to other streaming services, and that YouTube would block all music content from labels who do not reach a deal to be included on the paid service. In a statement to the Financial Times in June 2014, Robert Kyncl confirmed that YouTube would block the content of labels who do not negotiate deals to be included in the paid service "to ensure that all content on the platform is governed by its new contractual terms." Stating that 90% of labels had reached deals, he went on to say that "while we wish that we had [a] 100% success rate, we understand that is not likely an achievable goal and therefore it is our responsibility to our users and the industry to launch the enhanced music experience."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name=guardian-musicpass>Template:Cite news</ref><ref name=guardian-stall>Template:Cite news</ref><ref name=guardian-indieblock>Template:Cite news</ref> The Financial Times later reported that YouTube had reached an aggregate deal with Merlin Network—a trade group representing over 20,000 independent labels, for their inclusion in the service. However, YouTube itself has not confirmed the deal.<ref name="Variety Music Key"/>

NSA Prism program

Following media reports about PRISM, NSA's massive electronic surveillance program, in June 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including YouTube. According to leaks of said program, YouTube joined the PRISM program in 2010.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

April Fools

YouTube featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year from 2008 to 2016.

In 2008, all the links to the videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley's music video "Never Gonna Give You Up", a prank known as "Rickrolling".<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In 2009, when clicking on a video on the main page, the whole page turned upside down. YouTube claimed that this was a "new layout".<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In 2010, YouTube temporarily released a "TEXTp" mode, which translated the colors in the videos to random upper case letters. YouTube claimed in a message that this was done in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $1 per second.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In 2011, the site celebrated its "100th anniversary" with a "1911 button" and a range of sepia-toned silent, early 1900s-style films, including "Flugelhorn Feline", a parody of Keyboard Cat.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In 2012, clicking on the image of a DVD next to the site logo led to a video about "The YouTube Collection", a purported option to order every YouTube video for home delivery on DVD, videocassette, LaserDisc, or Betamax tapes. The spoof promotional video touted "the complete YouTube experience completely offline."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In 2013, YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to claim that the video sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would announce a winner of the contest when the site went back up in 2023. A video of two presenters announcing the nominees streamed live for twelve hours.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In 2014, YouTube announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming memes, such as "Clocking", "Kissing Dad", and "Glub Glub Water Dance".<ref>YouTube Reveals Its Viral Secrets In April Fools' Day Video Kleinman, Alexis, Huffington Post, April 1, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014.</ref>

In 2015, YouTube added a music button to the video bar that played samples from "Sandstorm" by Darude. Additionally, when users searched for a song title, a message would appear saying "Did you mean: Darude – Sandstorm by Darude".<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In 2016, YouTube announced "SnoopaVision Beta", telling their users that soon they would have the option to watch every video on the platform in 360 degree mode with Snoop Dogg.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

See also

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General:

References

Notes

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Further reading

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