Programming languages used in most popular websites

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The most popular (i.e., the most visited) websites have in common that they are dynamic websites. Their development typically involves server side coding, client side coding and database technology. The programming languages applied to deliver similar dynamic web content however vary vastly between sites.

Programming languages used in most popular websites*
Websites Popularity
(unique visitors per month)<ref name="ebz_dec2014">Template:Cite web</ref>
Front-end
(Client-side)
Back-end
(Server-side)
Database Notes
Google.com<ref>searchenginewatch.com - Google Hits the Billion Monthly Unique Visitors Mark</ref> 1,600,000,000 JavaScript C, C++, Go,<ref>Rob Pike (2012). Go at Google. Presentation at the ACM conference on Systems, Programming, Languages and Applications: Software for Humanity (SPLASH).</ref> Java, Python BigTable,<ref name="Big Table">Template:Cite web</ref> MariaDB<ref name="google_mdb">Template:Cite web</ref> The most used search engine in the world
Facebook.com 1,100,000,000 JavaScript Hack, PHP (HHVM), Python, C++, Java, Erlang, D,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Xhp,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Haskell<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> MariaDB, MySQL,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> HBase Cassandra<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The most visited social networking site
YouTube.com 1,100,000,000 JavaScript C, C++, Python, Java,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Go<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Vitess, BigTable, MariaDB<ref name="google_mdb"/><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The most visited video sharing site
Yahoo 750,000,000 JavaScript PHP MySQL, PostgreSQL<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Yahoo is presentlyTemplate:When transitioning to Node.js<ref name="Work on NodeJS at Yahoo">Template:Cite web</ref>
Amazon.com 500,000,000 JavaScript Java, C++, Perl<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Oracle Database<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Popular internet shopping site
Wikipedia.org 475,000,000 JavaScript PHP, Hack MySQLTemplate:Citation needed, MariaDB<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> "MediaWiki" is programmed in PHP, runs on HHVM; free online encyclopedia
Twitter.com 290,000,000 JavaScript C++, Java, Scala, Ruby<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> MySQL<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> 140 characters social network
Bing 285,000,000 JavaScript ASP.NET Microsoft SQL Server
eBay.com 285,000,000 JavaScript Java,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> JavaScript,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Scala<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Oracle Database Online auction house
MSN.com 280,000,000 JavaScript ASP.NET Microsoft SQL Server An email client, for simple use. Mostly known as "messenger".
Microsoft 270,000,000 JavaScript ASP.NET Microsoft SQL Server Software company
Linkedin.com 260,000,000 JavaScript Java, JavaScript,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Scala Voldemort<ref name="voldemort_li">Template:Cite web</ref> World's largest professional network
Pinterest 250,000,000 JavaScript Django (a Python framework),<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Erlang MySQL, Redis <ref name="bi_pint">Template:Cite web</ref>
WordPress.com 240,000,000 JavaScript PHP, JavaScript <ref>Template:Cite web</ref> (Node.js) MariaDB, MySQL

*data on programming languages are based on:

Back-end (Server-side) table in most popular websites
Websites ASP.NET C C++ D Erlang Go Hack Java JavaScript Perl PHP Python Ruby Scala Xhp
Google.com No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No No No
YouTube.com No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No No No
Facebook.com No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes
Yahoo No No No No No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No
Amazon.com No No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No
Wikipedia.org No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No No
Twitter.com No No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No Yes Yes No
Bing Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
eBay.com No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
MSN.com Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Microsoft Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Linkedin.com No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
Pinterest No No No No Yes No No No No No No Yes No No No
WordPress.com No No No No No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No

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References

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