Advertising History

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History

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File:Bronze printing plate for an advertisement.jpg
Bronze plate for printing an advertisement for the Liu family needle shop at Jinan, Song dynasty China. It is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium.

Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC.<ref name= Bhatia>Bhatia (2000). Advertising in Rural India: Language, Marketing Communication, and Consumerism, 62+68</ref>

In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry (11th to 7th centuries BC) of bamboo flutes played to sell candy. Advertisement usually takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium.<ref>Hong Liu, Chinese Business: Landscapes and Strategies (2013), p.15.</ref>

In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, and the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horse shoe, a candle or even a bag of flour. Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers (town criers) to announce their whereabouts for the convenience of the customers. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content.

19th century

File:Edo period advertising in Japan.jpg
Edo period LEL flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called Kinseitan.

Template:Contradict Thomas J. Barratt from London has been called "the father of modern advertising".<ref>He was first described as such in T F G Coates, 'Mr Thomas J Barratt, "The father of modern advertising"', Modern Business, September 1908, pp. 107–15.</ref><ref name="mat">Matt Haig, Brand failures: the truth about the 100 biggest branding mistakes of all time, Kogan Page Publishers, 2005, pp. 219, 266.</ref><ref name="nick">Nicholas Mirzoeff, The visual culture reader, Routledge, 2002, p. 510.</ref> Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans, images and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.<ref name="obit">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="part">Eric Partridge, Paul Beale, A Dictionary of Catch Phrases: British and American, from the Sixteenth Century to the Present Day, Routledge, 1986, p.164.</ref>

Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were widely circulated in his day. He constantly stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns. He also understood the importance of constantly reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, and the advertiser has to change with them. An idea that was effective a generation ago would fall flat, stale, and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."<ref name="mat" />

As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising.

Template:Disputed sectionIn June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roots of the modern day advertising agency in Philadelphia. In 1842 Palmer bought large amounts of space in various newspapers at a discounted rate then resold the space at higher rates to advertisers. The actual ad – the copy, layout, and artwork – was still prepared by the company wishing to advertise; in effect, Palmer was a space broker. The situation changed in the late 19th century when the advertising agency of N.W. Ayer & Son was founded. Ayer and Son offered to plan, create, and execute complete advertising campaigns for its customers. By 1900 the advertising agency had become the focal point of creative planning, and advertising was firmly established as a profession. <ref name="eskilson-pg58">Template:Cite book</ref> Around the same time, in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his news agency, Havas to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French group to organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. N. W. Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayer opened in 1869, and was located in Philadelphia.<ref name="eskilson-pg58" />

20th century

File:Pears Soap 1900.jpg
A 1900 advertisement for Pears soap.
File:Ad Encyclopaedia-Britannica 05-1913.jpg
A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the Encyclopædia Britannica.

Advertising increased dramatically in the United States as industrialization expanded the supply of manufactured products. In order to profit from this higher rate of production, industry needed to recruit workers as consumers of factory products. It did so through the invention of mass marketing designed to influence the population's economic behavior on a larger scale.<ref>Ewen, Captains of Consciousness (1976), p. 33. "As Ford's massive assembly line utilized 'extensive single-purpose machinery' to produce automobiles inexpensively and at a rate that dwarfed traditional methods, the costly machinery of advertising that Coolidge had described set out to produce consumers, likewise inexpensively and at a rate that dwarfed traditional methods."</ref> In the 1910s and 1920s, advertisers in the U.S. adopted the doctrine that human instincts could be targeted and harnessed – "sublimated" into the desire to purchase commodities.<ref>Ewen, Captains of Consciousness (1976), p. 34. "While agreeing that 'human nature is more difficult to control than material nature,' ad men spoke in specific terms of 'human instincts' which if properly understood could induce people 'to buy a given product if it was scientifically presented. If advertising copy appealed to the right instincts, the urge to buy would surely be excited'."</ref> Edward Bernays, a nephew of Sigmund Freud, became associated with the method and is sometimes called the founder of modern advertising and public relations.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

In the 1920s, under Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, the American government promoted advertising. Hoover himself delivered an address to the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World in 1925 called 'Advertising Is a Vital Force in Our National Life."<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> In October 1929, the head of the U.S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Julius Klein, stated "Advertising is the key to world prosperity."<ref name="Leach367">Template:Cite book</ref> This was part of the "unparalleled" collaboration between business and government in the 1920s, according to a 1933 European economic journal.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

The tobacco companies became major advertisers in order to sell packaged cigarettes.<ref name="Brandt2009p31">Brandt (2009) p.31</ref> The tobacco companies pioneered the new advertising techniques when they hired Bernays to create positive associations with tobacco smoking.<ref name="Studlar2002p55" /><ref name="Gifford2010p15" />

Advertising was also used as a vehicle for cultural assimilation, encouraging workers to exchange their traditional habits and community structure in favor of a shared "modern" lifestyle.<ref>Ewen, Captains of Consciousness (1976), pp. 68–59. "Widespread within the socially oriented literature of business in the twenties and thirties is a notion of educating people into an acceptance of the products and aesthetics of a mass-produced culture. ... Beyond this, and perhaps more important to the consciousness of many, were the indigenous networks of social structure which generated mistrust or open opposition to corporate monopolization of culture."</ref> An important tool for influencing immigrant workers was the American Association of Foreign Language Newspapers (AAFLN). The AAFLN was primarily an advertising agency but also gained heavily centralized control over much of the immigrant press.<ref>Ewen, Captains of Consciousness (1976), pp. 62–65.</ref><ref>Petit, The Men and Women We Want (2010), pp. 66–68.</ref>

File:1916-skin-touch-soap-ad.jpg
1916 Ladies' Home Journal version of the famous ad by Helen Lansdowne Resor of the J. Walter Thompson Agency

At the turn of the 20th century, there were few career choices for women in business; however, advertising was one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in their household, advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the creative process. In fact, the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman – for a soap product. Although tame by today's standards, the advertisement featured a couple with the message "A skin you love to touch".<ref>Advertising Slogans, Woodbury Soap Company, "A skin you love to touch", J. Walter Thompson Co., 1911</ref>

In the 1920s psychologists Walter D. Scott and John B. Watson contributed applied psychological theory to the field of advertising. Scott said, "Man has been called the reasoning animal but he could with greater truthfulness be called the creature of suggestion. He is reasonable, but he is to a greater extent suggestible".<ref>Benjamin, L.T., & Baker, D.B. 2004. Industrial-organizational psychology: The new psychology and the business of advertising. From Séance to Science: A History of the Profession of Psychology in America. 118–121. California: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.</ref> He demonstrated this through his advertising technique of a direct command to the consumer.

On the radio from the 1920s

File:1930.05.06 Advertisement for Radio Broadcast With Lisa Roma.gif
Advertisement for a live radio broadcast, sponsored by a milk company, Adohr milk, and published in the Los Angeles Times on May 6, 1930

In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and civic groups.<ref name="uouynv">McChesney, Robert, Educators and the Battle for Control of U.S. Broadcasting, 1928–35, Rich Media, Poor Democracy, Template:ISBN (1999)</ref>

When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularized, each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows. However, radio station owners soon realized they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's broadcasts, rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show.Template:Citation neededTemplate:Clear left

Commercial television in the 1950s

In the early 1950s, the DuMont Television Network began the modern practice of selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Previously, DuMont had trouble finding sponsors for many of their programs and compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses. This eventually became the standard for the commercial television industry in the United States. However, it was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows, such as The United States Steel Hour. In some instances the sponsors exercised great control over the content of the show – up to and including having one's advertising agency actually writing the show.Template:Citation needed The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now, a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame.Template:Citation needed

Cable television from the 1980s

The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. Pioneering the concept of the music video, MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in for the advertising message, rather than it being a by-product or afterthought. As cable and satellite television became increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged, including channels entirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC, Home Shopping Network, and ShopTV Canada. Template:Citation needed

On the Internet from the 1990s

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With the advent of the ad server, online advertising grew, contributing to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s.Template:Citation needed Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century, some websites, including the search engine Google, changed online advertising by personalizing ads based on web browsing behavior. This has led to other similar efforts and an increase in interactive advertising.Template:Citation needed

The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in media since 1925. In 1925, the main advertising media in America were newspapers, magazines, signs on streetcars, and outdoor posters. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2.9 percent. By 1998, television and radio had become major advertising media. Nonetheless, advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower – about 2.4 percent.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Guerrilla marketing involves unusual approaches such as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brand messages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message. This type of advertising is unpredictable, which causes consumers to buy the product or idea.Template:Citation needed This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and "embedded" ads, such as via product placement, having consumers vote through text messages, and various campaigns utilizing social network services such as Facebook or Twitter.Template:Citation needed

The advertising business model has also been adapted in recent years.Template:When Template:ClarifyIn media for equity, advertising is not sold, but provided to start-up companies in return for equity. If the company grows and is sold, the media companies receive cash for their shares.

Domain name registrants (usually those who register and renew domains as an investment) sometimes "park" their domains and allow advertising companies to place ads on their sites in return for per-click payments.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> These ads are typically driven by pay per click search engines like Google or Yahoo, but ads can sometimes be placed directly on targeted domain names through a domain lease or by making contact with the registrant of a domain name that describes a product.<ref name=domainlease>Template:Cite web</ref> Domain name registrants are generally easy to identify through WHOIS records that are publicly available at registrar websites.<ref name=icannwhois>Template:Cite web</ref>